Six years after the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty opens
for signature, 166 States have
signed and 94 have ratified
Today marks the sixth anniversary of the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Treaty, which bans all nuclear test explosions in any environment, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, and opened for signature on 24 September 1996. Seventy-one states signed the Treaty on that day, and today it is steadily approaching universality, with 166 signatures and 94 ratifications. In the year since the fifth anniversary of its opening for signature, the Treaty has gained five additional signatures and 13 ratifications.
To enter into force, however, the Treaty must be ratified by 44 named States, listed in its Annex 2. These States possess either nuclear power or nuclear research reactors, and participated in the 1996 session of the Conference on Disarmament. Forty-one of the Annex 2 States have signed the Treaty, and 31 have ratified it.
Under the terms of the Treaty, a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Treaty must be operational at the time of entry into force. This verification regime, based on an International Monitoring System (IMS) of 337 monitoring facilities around the world and the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, provides for a consultation and clarification process, on-site inspections and confidence-building measures. The data collected by the IMS and analysed in the IDC will be used by States, upon entry into force, to monitor Treaty adherence and, if necessary, to reach a decision as to whether or not the Treaty has been contravened.
Excellent progress has been made in establishing the global verification regime over the six years. Out of the 337 IMS facilities provided for in the Treaty, site surveys for 280 stations, equivalent to 87% of the total number of sites, are now complete. Altogether 135 stations have been completed or substantially meet specifications, and 104 additional stations are under construction or in contract negotiations. Some 70 facilities are contributing data to the IDC.
Today, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is recognized as a cornerstone in nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. It has the firm backing of the international community, and is supported by cutting edge verification technology. States which sign and ratify the Treaty join a global community committed to ensuring that the world is a safer and more secure place.
The anniversary is being marked in Vienna with a reception hosted by the City of Vienna.
The 166 States that have so far signed the Treaty are: Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Federated States of, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The 94 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Latvia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uruguay, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.